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At the same time, Athens's greatest runner, Pheidippides(or Philippides in som… The Persians were sailing towards the undefended city. TOS4. Scholars have debated whether the battle was in the month of Boedromion or in the preceding month, Metageitnion; most favour Metageitnion. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: 1880. The Persians, therefore, when they saw the Greeks coming on at speed, made ready to receive them, although it seemed to them that the Athenians were bereft of their senses, and bent upon their own destruction; for they saw a mere handful of men coming on at a run without either horsemen or archers.
Rather than sail back to Asia, the Persian fleet rounded Cape Sounion: The barbarians… sailed around Sounion, hoping to arrive at the city of Athens before the Athenians could march there. The fighting in 490 B.C. This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 2 pages. Change ). Request Permissions. 1920. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The account of the battle of Marathon mainly based on Herodotus has however many gaps in the way that it does not give the strength of the two armies nor does it explain the reason why the Persian cavalry did not join in the engagement. “Battle of Marathon, (September 490 BCE), in the Greco-Persian Wars, decisive battle fought on the Marathon plain of northeastern Attica in which the Athenians, in a single afternoon, repulsed the first Persian invasion of Greece. And low the gilded Medians’ power they brought.” Pheidippides is said to have run the entire distance without stopping, delivering his message to the Athenian people before dying from exhaustion. Login via your The Battle of Marathon | Eyewitness Account From Herodotus [ 490 BC ], Mark Cartwright in his article titled Marathon, Battle of Marathon: Greeks Versus the Persians, The Battle of Marathon (Yale Military History) by Yale University Press, Marathon: The Battle That Changed Western Civilization by Gerald Duckworth, Marathon: How One Battle Changed Western Civilization by Harry N. Abrams, http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/marathon.htm, http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/marathon.html, http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/persian-invasions/herodotus-account-of-the-battle-of-marathon/5740, http://www.livius.org/articles/battle/marathon-490-bce/, https://www.historynet.com/battle-of-marathon-greeks-versus-the-persians.htm, Follow THE CHRONICLES OF HISTORY on WordPress.com, The Battle of Marathon, 490 BC (n.d.).
The following description of the Battle of Marathon is from The History of Herodotus, trans. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte There is no denying the fact that the account of Herodotus gives the leading facts. . (n.d.). The polemarch at this juncture was Callimachus of Aphidnre; to him therefore Miltiades went, and said: Miltiades arranges the Greek line of battle so that it stretches the length of the opposing, and far superior, Persian army. Therefore, Miltiades failed in his conquest against Paros, being brought to trial in front of the Athenians because of this failure. The distance he is said to have run is estimated to be around twenty-six miles or forty kilometers. Web. Presented with an emotive choice between becoming responsible for reducing Athens to slavery or earning himself ever-lasting fame by taking Miltiades’s side, Kallimachos saw at once where his duty lay. A long and hard fight followed, in which the Persians broke the Athenian battle ranks in the centre but were themselves routed on the wings. ‘Joy, we win!’ he said, and died upon his message, breathing his last in the word Joy. I could not deem myself a slave. (The Complete Works of Lucian of Samosata, Vol. ( Log Out / Therefore, according to Pausanias, the victims of this battle were so numerous that one still hears “horses neighing and men fighting… at Marathon every night” (Pausanias). Some of the Athenians fell in battle on the tumulus, which is the hill within this picture that is also still present today (Smith).
(VI. And since the casting vote belonged to a man by the name of Kallimachos, Miltiades sought him out in private: “It is now up to you, Kallimachos, whether you will reduce Athens to slavery, or ensure its freedom and thus leave to all posterity a memorial for yourself… For from the time Athenians first came into existence up until the present, this is the greatest danger they have ever confronted. Two years earlier a Persian fleet, hit by a storm under Mount Athos, had gone straight to the bottom of the sea with the loss of 300 triremes and 20 thousand men (VI.44). the great Panathenaea, and the festival of Poseidon, the Athenian, herald prays for good things for the Athenians and Plataeans together.
However, as the two armies met in hand-to-hand combat, the Greeks obtained the advantage in having more advanced, protective armor as well as longer weapons, allowing them to probe their enemies while being at an unreachable distance. The mighty Persian Empire quickly developed into a powerful nation that had successfully been conquering other countries and territories prior to an assault leading up the coast of Greece at Marathon located approximately forty miles from Athens in 490 BC. “Persia, under the rule of Darius (r. 522-486 BCE), was already expanding into mainland Europe and had subjugated Ionia, Thrace, and Macedonia by the beginning of the 5th century BCE. Therefore, Herodotus thought the attack could have been one of vengeance. He was first known for having ravaged Scyros in order to avenge the death of Theseus and later, carried his bones back to Athens (Pausanias).
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