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Because of this, the lifetime of a filament lamp is a trade-off between efficiency and longevity. This also means that the filament wire is shrinking as it loses molecules.
The halogen lamp reduces uneven evaporation of the filament and eliminates darkening of the envelope by filling the lamp with a halogen gas at low pressure, along with an inert gas. IEC 60064 Tungsten filament lamps for domestic and similar general lighting purposes.
 After many experiments, first with carbon in the early 1880s and then with platinum and other metals, in the end Edison returned to a carbon filament.
Developed around 1915, these lamps were displaced by mercury and xenon arc lamps.. Incandescent light bulbs usually contain a stem or glass mount anchored to the bulb's base that allows the electrical contacts to run through the envelope without air or gas leaks. As a result, incandescent bulbs emit a lot of the energy they use in the infrared portion of the spectrum. Tungsten has the highest available melting point. Measures to ban light bulbs have been implemented in the European Union, the United States, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia, among others.  Other electrical light sources are more effective. Very small lamps may have the filament support wires extended through the base of the lamp for connections. Long-life bulbs take advantage of this trade-off in applications such as traffic signal lamps. , In 1896 Italian inventor Arturo Malignani (1865–1939) patented an evacuation method for mass production, which allowed obtaining economic bulbs lasting 800 hours. The Centennial Light is the longest-lasting light bulb in the world.  They conclude that Edison's version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve (by use of the Sprengel pump) and a high resistance that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable. An electric current heats the filament to typically 2,000 to 3,300 K (1,730 to 3,030 °C; 3,140 to 5,480 °F), well below tungsten's melting point of 3,695 K (3,422 °C; 6,191 °F). By the mid-1870s better pumps had become available, and Swan returned to his experiments. An impact on the outside of the bulb may cause the filament to break or experience a surge in electric current that causes part of it to melt or vaporize. The light bulb invented by Cruto, lasted five hundred hours as opposed to the forty of Edison’s original version. The table shows the approximate typical output, in lumens, of standard 120 volt incandescent light bulbs at various powers. Fiber-optic lamps for optical microscopy is one typical application. , The spectrum of light produced by an incandescent lamp closely approximates that of a black body radiator at the same temperature. If that were done in the open air, in the presence of oxygen, the metal filament would burn up before it got that hot. The filament in a tungsten light bulb is not easy to break when the bulb is cold, but filaments are more vulnerable when they are hot because the incandescent metal is less rigid. However, the bulb emits the equivalent light of a four watt bulb. Les ampoules à filament pourraient-elles revenir ? Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting. When used as a source of electrons, they may have a special coating that increases electron production.  Metamerism describes the effect of different light spectrum distributions on the perception of color. Miniature lamps may have a wedge base and wire contacts, and some automotive and special purpose lamps have screw terminals for connection to wires. Such bulbs are much smaller than normal incandescent bulbs, and are widely used where intense illumination is needed in a limited space. During the heating season heat produced by the bulbs is not wasted, although in most cases it is more cost effective to obtain heat from the heating system. , In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland. Supraconductivité à haute température : faut-il oublier les phonons ? Early lamps, and some small modern lamps used only a vacuum to protect the filament from oxygen. Edison Gower-Bell Telephone Company of Europe, Ltd. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Incandescent_light_bulb&oldid=984381762, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles with disputed statements from January 2014, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Photographic and projection lamps with very high filament temperatures and short lifetimes, Ideal monochromatic 555 nm (green) source, ⌀35 mm (~⌀11/8 in) candle-flame shape, ⌀12 mm Edison screw, ⌀95 mm (~⌀30/8 in) flood light, ⌀26 mm Edison screw, Support wires (one end embedded in stem; conduct no current), Nitrogen, used in some higher-power lamps, e.g.
It once resided in an opera house where notable celebrities stopped to take in its glow, and was moved to an area museum in 1977. Hakunetsusha developed a method to mass-produce coiled coil filaments by 1936.. This depends mainly on the operating resistance of the filament. This allows for greater temperatures and therefore greater efficacy with less reduction in filament life.. Quelle est la différence entre physique et chimie ? Not all wavelengths are equally effective at stimulating the human eye. Since tantalum metal has a lower resistivity than carbon, the tantalum lamp filament was quite long and required multiple internal supports. En savoir plus. An incandescent light bulb or light source is any device that uses electricity to heat a filament—or wire—until it is hot enough to glow white. incandescent définition, signification, ce qu'est incandescent: 1. producing a bright light from a heated filament or other part: 2. extremely bright: 3. showing….  Some infrared heating elements are made for higher voltages, but these use tubular bulbs with widely separated terminals. Most standard incandescent light bulbs can’t meet those standards, but one that did could still be manufactured and sold.
During ordinary operation, the tungsten of the filament evaporates; hotter, more-efficient filaments evaporate faster. Hydrogen from water vapor reduces the oxide, reforming water vapor and continuing this water cycle.
Coated glass bulbs have kaolin clay blown in and electrostatically deposited on the interior of the bulb.
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