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 In Tanzania, a local Ngindo name is ndemalunyayo ("grass-cutter") because it supposedly clips grass. When hatched, the young range from 40–60 cm (16–24 in) in length. , The black mamba is a long, slender, cylindrical snake. , The composition of black mamba venom differs markedly from those of other mambas, all of which contain predominantly three-finger toxin agents. The species is both terrestrial (ground-living) and arboreal (tree-living); it inhabits savannah, woodland, rocky slopes and in some regions, dense forest.  The generic name of the species is derived from the Ancient Greek words dendron (δένδρον), "tree", and aspis (ἀσπίς) "asp", and the specific epithet polylepis is derived from the Ancient Greek poly (πολύ) meaning "many" and lepis (λεπίς) meaning "scale". In 2015, the proteome (complete protein profile) of black mamba venom was assessed and published, revealing 41 distinct proteins and one …  This typically occurs in 7 to 15 hours.  Dendrotoxins are akin to kunitz-type protease inhibitors that interact with voltage-dependent potassium channels, stimulating acetylcholine and causing an excitatory effect, and are thought to cause symptoms such as sweating. Snakes of Medical Importance include those with highly dangerous venom resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality, or those that are common agents in snakebite. Individuals occasionally display dark mottling towards the posterior, which may appear in the form of diagonal crossbands. But some old individuals may well be very dark in colour and from a distance may appear to be black. The first formal description of the black mamba was made in 1864 by German-born British zoologist Albert Günther. In two other cases, it was not clear which antivenom had been given.
, This article is about a species of venomous snake.  During mating, the male will slither over the dorsal side of the female while flicking its tongue.  Mongooses, which have some resistance to mamba venom and are often quick enough to evade a bite, will sometimes take a black mamba for prey.  The size of the black mamba and its ability to raise its head a large distance from the ground enables it to launch as much as 40% of its body length upwards, so mamba bites to humans can occur on the upper body. In rural areas, antivenom may be unavailable, so deaths still occur.  Its bite can deliver about 100–120 mg of venom on average; the maximum recorded dose is 400 mg. The murine median lethal dose (LD50) when administered intravenously has been calculated at 0.32 and 0.33 mg/kg.  The mechanism in both mammals is thought to be that their muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors do not bind snake alpha-neurotoxins. It is thought this may reflect the preferred prey items – small mammals for the mainly land-dwelling black mamba versus birds for the predominantly arboreal other mambas.  The adult snake's length typically ranges from 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) but specimens have grown to lengths of 4.3 to 4.5 m (14 ft 1 in to 14 ft 9 in). , The black mamba is both terrestrial and arboreal.  This was subsequently regarded as a subspecies and is no longer held to be distinct. This typically occurs in 7 to 15 hours. Its eyes have 3 or occasionally 4 preocular and 2–5 postocular scales.  In 1896, Belgian-British zoologist George Albert Boulenger combined the species Dendroaspis polylepis as a whole with the eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), a lumping diagnosis that remained in force until 1946 when South African herpetologist Vivian FitzSimons again split them into separate species. Bites are uncommon because the snake avoids humans, isn't aggressive, and doesn't defend its lair.  In the wild, black mambas seldom tolerate humans approaching more closely than about 40 metres (130 ft).  Bites are very rare outside Africa; snake handlers and enthusiasts are the usual victims. , The species prefers moderately dry environments such as light woodland and scrub, rocky outcrops and semi-arid savanna. , Standard first aid treatment for any suspected bite from a venomous snake is the application of a pressure bandage to the bite site, minimisation of movement of the victim and conveyance to a hospital or clinic as quickly as possible.  It also inhabits moist savanna and lowland forests.  It also is likely to hiss and spread its neck into a hood similar to that of the cobras in the genus Naja. , During the threat display, any sudden movement by the intruder may provoke the snake into performing a series of rapid strikes, leading to severe envenomation. , The black mamba inhabits a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa; its range includes Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Swaziland, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, and Angola. , The number and pattern of scales on a snake's body are a key element of identification to species level. First aid includes application of pressure or a tourniquet to slow the progression of the venom, followed by administration of antivenom. The diagnosis of black mamba snake bite is confirmed by the identification of the reptile and assessment of the clinical manifestations.… Black Mamba Snake Bite: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, …  The body mass of black mambas has been reported to be about 1.6 kg (3.5 lb), although a study of seven black mambas found an average weight of 1.03 kg (2.3 lb), ranging from 520 g (1.15 lb) for a specimen of 1.01 m (3 ft 4 in) total length to 2.4 kg (5.3 lb) for a specimen of 2.57 m (8 ft 5 in) total length. Adult black mambas have few natural predators.  It is rated as a species of least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of endangered species, based on its huge range across sub-Saharan Africa and no documented decline. It is diurnal and is known to prey on birds and small mammals. The Black Mamba is rarely black in colour. London: Scientists have developed an experimental anti-venom against toxins from the world's most feared venomous snake, the black mamba, which is found in Africa.. [c] A census in rural Zimbabwe in 1991 and 1992 revealed 274 cases of snakebite, of which 5 died. The male will then coil itself around the posterior end of the female and align its tail ventrolaterally with the female's. This observation, and a subsequent observation that identified a second specimen in the region in 1956, has not been confirmed and thus the snake's distribution in this area is inconclusive.  Fasciculins are anticholinesterase inhibitors that cause muscle fasciculation.  The peak period for deaths is the species' breeding season from September to February, during which black mambas are most irritable.
Some observers have mistaken this for courtship.  Without appropriate antivenom treatment, symptoms typically progress to respiratory failure, which leads to cardiovascular collapse and death. Black mambas are among the commonly found snakes in Tanzania and are considered highly venomous. In 1954, the black mamba was recorded in the Dakar region of Senegal.  The black mamba does not typically hold onto its prey after biting; rather it releases its quarry and waits for it to succumb to paralysis and death before it swallows.  The bite of a black mamba can cause collapse in humans within 45 minutes or less. P. Ionides", "Über zwei Giftschlangen aus Afrika und über neue oder weniger bekannte Gattungen und Arten von Batrachiern", "Kruger Park Times - Myths, facts and more about the Black Mamba...", Animal Diversity Web (ADW), University of Michigan, "Biology and treatment of the mamba snakebite", 10.1580/1080-6032(1996)007[0133:BATOTM]2.3.CO;2, "Kruger Park Birding: Eagles and Hawk-Eagles Birding Raptor Guide", "Watch a Mongoose Swing From a Deadly Snake", "Voices of Botswana: honey badger versus black mamba", "Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins", "Snakebite and the use of antivenom in southern Africa", "Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa", "Snake Bite: A review of Current Literature", "Meet the man who stops Kruger's lions from wandering the streets of South Africa", "UK student dies after snake bite in South Africa", "Student died after being bitten by snake", "Black mamba killed Wing student in South Africa – inquest", "Portraits of snake charm worth elephant-killing bite", "Snakes in a Frame: Mark Laita's Stunning Photographs of Slithering Beasts", "This Woman Survived One Of The Deadliest Snake Attacks", "Black mamba bite: Judge died before anti-venom could be administered", "Ето как спасиха живота на д-р Георги Еленски, ухапан от черна мамба", Black mamba – Clinical Toxinology Resources, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Black_mamba&oldid=984344625, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Distribution range of black mamba in red (brown areas are inconclusive), Danie Pienaar, who was at various times from at least 2009, American professional photographer Mark Laita was bitten on the leg by a black mamba during a photo-shoot of a black mamba at a facility in, In 2016, Kenyan woman Cheposait Adomo was attacked by three black mambas, one of which bit her repeatedly on the leg, in, Prominent South African anti-Apartheid activist and, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 16:43. , Adult mambas have few natural predators aside from birds of prey.  The black mamba's reputation for being ready to attack is exaggerated; it is usually provoked by perceived threats such as the blocking of its movements and ability to retreat. Juvenile black mambas are very apprehensive and can be deadly like the adults. Over suitable surfaces, it can move at speeds up to 16 km/h (10 mph) for short distances. The common name is derived from the appearance of the inside of the mouth, dark bluish-grey to nearly black.  It is the second-longest venomous snake species, exceeded in length only by the king cobra. It has a coffin-shaped head with a somewhat pronounced brow ridge and a medium-sized eye.  Early neurological signs that indicate severe envenomation include a metallic taste, drooping eyelids (ptosis) and gradual symptoms of bulbar palsy. A survey in South Africa from 1957 to 1979 recorded 2553 venomous snakebites, 75 of which were confirmed as being from black mambas. They may return daily to the same basking site. It is rated as least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of Threatened Species. [a] Its mouth is lined with 7–8 supralabial scales above, with the fourth and sometimes also the third one located under the eye, and 10-14 sublabial scales below.
International Union for Conservation of Nature, South African Institute for Medical Research, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T177584A7461853.en, "Report on a collection of reptiles and fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa Regions", "On reptiles and amphibians for Tanganyika Territory collected by C.J.